%System root%/NTDS/NTDS>DIT
The key AD database files—edb.log, ntds.dit, res1.log, res2.log, and edb.chk—all of which reside in %systemroot%ntds on a domain controller (DC) by default. During AD installation, Dcpromo lets you specify alternative locations for these log files and database files NTDS.DIT
  • Local Profiles
  • Roaming profiles
  • Mandatory Profiles
  • FTP-21,
  • Telnet – 23,
  • HTTP-80,
  • DNS-53,
  • Kerberos-88,
  • LDAP-389
NTFS Version 5 features Encryption is possible We can enable Disk Quotas File compression is possible Sparse files Indexing Service NTFS change journal In FAT file system we can apply only share level security. File level protection is not possible. In NTFS we can apply both share level as well as file level security NTFS supports large partition sizes than FAT file systems NTFS supports long file names than FAT file systems
There is a four way negotiation process b/w client and server DHCP Discover (Initiated by client) DHCP Offer (Initiated by server) DHCP Select (Initiated by client) DHCP Acknowledgment (Initiated by Server) DHCP Negative Acknowledgment (Initiated by server if any issues after DHCP offer)
Implicit Trusts Explicit Trusts—NT to Win2k or Forest to Forest
Client will not get IP and it cannot be participated in network . If client already got the IP and having lease duration it use the IP till the lease duration expires.

Primary DNS Secondary DNS Active Directory Integrated DNS Forwarder Caching only DNS

DNS is a Domain Naming System, which resolves Host names to IP addresses. It uses fully qualified domain names. DNS is a Internet standard used to resolve host names WINS is a Windows Internet Name Service, which resolves Netbios names to IP Address. This is proprietary for Windows
There is no difference between in DC and ADC both contains write copy of AD. Both can also handles FSMO roles (If transfers from DC to ADC). It is just for identification. Functionality wise there is no difference.
PDC contains a write copy of SAM database where as BDC contains read only copy of SAM database. It is not possible to reset a password or create objects with out PDC in Windows NT.
Application Server mode is introduced in windows 2003 Possible to configure stub zones in windows 2003 DNS Volume shadow copy services is introduced Windows 2003 gives an option to replicate DNS data b/w all DNS servers in forest or All DNS servers in the domain. Refer Question 1 for all Enhancements
NT SAM database is a flat database. Where as in windows 2000 active directory database is a hierarchical database. In windows NT only PDC is having writable copy of SAM database but the BDC is only read only database. In case of Windows 2000 both DC and ADC is having write copy of the database Windows NT will not support FAT32 file system. Windows 2000 supports FAT32 Default authentication protocol in NT is NTLM (NT LAN manager). In windows 2000 default authentication protocol is Kerberos V5. Windows 2000 depends and Integrated with DNS. NT user Netbios names Active Directory can be backed up easily with System state data
ACTIVE DIRECTORY Easier Deployment and Management ADMT version 2.0—migrates password from NT4 to 2000 to 20003 or from 2000 to 2003 Domain Rename— supports changing Domain Name System and/or NetBios name Schema Redefine— Allows deactivation of attributes and class definitions in the Active directory schema AD/AM— Active directory in application mode is a new capability of AD that addresses certain deployment scenarios related to directory enabled applications Group Policy Improvements—-introduced GPMC tool to manage group policy UI—Enhanced User Interface Grater Security Cross-forest Authentication Cross-forest Authorization Cross-certification Enhancements IAS and Cross-forest authentication Credential Manager Software Restriction Policies Improved Performance and Dependability Easier logon for remote offices Group Membership replication enhancements Application Directory Partitions Install Replica from media Dependability Improvements— updated Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG) that scales better by supporting forests with a greater number of sites than Windows 2000. FILE AND PRINT SERVICES Volume shadow copy service NTFS journaling file system EFS Improved CHDSK Performance Enhanced DFS and FRS Shadow copy of shared folders Enhanced folder redirection Remote document sharing (WEBDAV)   IIS Fault-tolerant process architecture—– The IIS 6.0 fault-tolerant process architecture isolates Web sites and applications into self-contained units called application pools Health Monitoring—- IIS 6.0 periodically checks the status of an application pool with automatic restart on failure of the Web sites and applications within that application pool, increasing application availability. IIS 6.0 protects the server, and other applications, by automatically disabling Web sites and applications that fail too often within a short amount of time Automatic Process Recycling— IIS 6.0 automatically stops and restarts faulty Web sites and applications based on a flexible set of criteria, including CPU utilization and memory consumption, while queuing requests Rapid-fail Protection—- If an application fails too often within a short amount of time, IIS 6.0 will automatically disable it and return a “503 Service Unavailable” error message to any new or queued requests to the application Edit-While-Running
There are lot of secure option for Windows, You can secure by –   * Set a difficult password for administrator * Disable gust account * Give minimum & limit permissions to administrator’s members * Make minimum share folder on your Windows’s * Give minimum share permission on that folder & full control to trust users * Always change the administrator password * Install third part firewall & set minimum port. * Access & deny those user’s & IP which you don’t want to access to your computer. * Don’t share your password.
Windows Server 2008 InstallationComponent Requirement   Step by Step 
Processor • Minimum: 1GHz (x86 processor) or 1.4GHz (x64 processor) • Recommended: 2GHz or faster Note: An Intel Itanium 2 processor is required for Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems
Memory • Minimum: 512MB RAM • Recommended: 2GB RAM or greater • Maximum (32-bit systems): 4GB (Standard) or 64GB (Enterprise and Datacenter) • Maximum (64-bit systems): 32GB (Standard) or 2TB (Enterprise, Datacenter and Itanium-based Systems)
Available Disk Space • Minimum: 10GB • Recommended: 40GB or greater Note: Computers with more than 16GB of RAM will require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files
Drive DVD-ROM drive
Display and Peripherals • Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher-resolution monitor • Keyboard • Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device
Upgrade notes: I will not discuss the upgrade process in this article, but for your general knowledge, the upgrade paths available for Windows Server 2008 shown in the table below:
If you are currently running:  You can upgrade to:
Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition (R2, Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2) Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Standard EditionFull Installation of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition  
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition (R2, Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2) Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition 
Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition (R2, Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2) Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition 
Follow this procedure to install Windows Server 2008:
  1. Insert the appropriate Windows Server 2008 installation mediainto your DVD drive. If you don’t have an installation DVD for Windows Server 2008, you can download one for free from Microsoft’s Windows 2008 Server Trial website.
  2. Rebootthe computer.
  3. When prompted for an installation languageand other regional options, make your selection and press Next.
  4. Next, press Install Now to begin the installation process.
  5. Product activation is now also identical with that found in Windows Vista. Enter yourProduct IDin the next window, and if you want to automatically activate Windows the moment the installation finishes, click Next.
If you do not have the Product ID available right now, you can leave the box empty, and click Next. You will need to provide the Product ID later, after the server installation is over. Press No.
  1. Because you did not provide the correct ID, the installation process cannot determine what kind of Windows Server 2008 license you own, and therefore you will be prompted to select your correct versionin the next screen, assuming you are telling the truth and will provide the correct ID to prove your selection later on.
  2. If you did provide the right Product ID, select the Full versionof the right Windows version you’re prompted, and click Next.
  3. Read and accept the license terms by clicking to select the checkboxand pressing Next.
  4. In the “Which type of installation do you want?” window, click the only available option –Custom (Advanced).
  5. In the “Where do you want to install Windows?”, if you’re installing the server on a regular IDE hard disk, click to select the first disk, usually Disk 0,and click Next.
If you’re installing on a hard disk that’s connected to a SCSI controller, click Load Driver and insert the media provided by the controller’s manufacturer. If you’re installing in a Virtual Machine environment, make sure you read the “Installing the Virtual SCSI Controller Driver for Virtual Server 2005 on Windows Server 2008 If you must, you can also click Drive Options and manually create a partition on the destination hard disk.
  1. The installation now begins, and you can go and have lunch. Copying the setup files from the DVD to the hard drive only takes about one minute. However, extracting and uncompressing the files takes a good deal longer. After 20 minutes, the operating system is installed. The exact time it takes to install server core depends upon your hardware specifications. Faster disks will perform much faster installs… Windows Server 2008 takes up approximately 10 GB of hard drive space.
The installation process will reboot your computer, so, if in step #10 you inserted a floppy disk (either real or virtual), make sure you remove it before going to lunch, as you’ll find the server hanged without the ability to boot (you can bypass this by configuring the server to boot from a CD/DVD and then from the hard disk in the booting order on the server’s BIOS)
  1. Then the server reboots you’ll be prompted with the new Windows Server 2008 type of login screen. Press CTRL+ALT+DELto log in.
  2. Click on Other User.
  3. The default Administratoris blank, so just type Administrator and press Enter.
  4. You will be prompted to change the user’s password. You have no choice but to press Ok.
  5. In the password changing dialog box, leave the default password blank(duh, read step #15…), and enter a new, complex, at-least-7-characters-long new password twice. A password like “topsecret” is not valid (it’s not complex), but one like “T0pSecreT!” sure is. Make sure you remember it.
  6. Someone thought it would be cool to nag you once more, so now you’ll be prompted to accept the fact that the password had been changed. Press Ok.
  7. Finally, the desktop appears and that’s it, you’re logged on and can begin working. You will be greeted by an assistant for the initial server configuration,and after performing some initial configuration tasks, you will be able to start working.
Next, for the initial configuration tasks please follow my other Windows Server 2008 articles found on the Related Windows Server 2008 Articles section below.
Layer 2 is responsible for switching data whereas Layer 3 is responsible for routing the data. Layer3: With information gathered from user, Internet protocol make one IP packet with source IP and Destination IP and other relevant information. It can then route packet through router to the destination. Layer2: Soon after it receives IP packet from layer 3, it encapsulate it with frame header (ATM header in case of ATM technology) and send it out for switching. In case of Ethernet it will send data to MAC address there by it can reach to exact destination.
Stands for Address Resolution Protocol…whenever a request is sent by a node on one network to the node on another network the Physical address(MAC) is required and for this the IP address need to be flow over the network..whenever a router with that network (IP) gets the msg. the required MAC address is sent through the network this process of converting the IP address to MAC address is Called ARP..and the reverse thats the convertion of the Mac address to the IP address is called RARP ( Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
VPN(Virtual Private Network )… these are basically the logical networks on the physical line… you can have many VPN over same line.. Need of VPN arises when your company need to increase the network but don’t want to buy any more switches.. take an eg. your dept. your room is packed with employees and ur company need to add 4 more persons to ur deptt. what will they do.. the solution is to create VPN’s…you can configure the switch ports in other deptts. and create a specific VLAN of ur deptt. So that the persons can sit there and access to the required pcs.
  • It Is A Layer1 Device..Used To Connect Various Machine On Lan.
  • It Forwards Broadcast By Default.
  • It Supports One Collision Domain And One Broadcast Domain.
  • It Works On Bus Topology Resulting Less Speed.
  • A Layer2 Device.
  • Forward Broadcast First Time Only.
  • One Broadcast Domain & Collision Domains Depends On No. Of Ports.
  • It Is Based On Star Topology Giving 100mbps To Every Pc On Lan.
  • Does Not Broadcast By Default.
  • Breaks Up Broadcast Domain.
  • Also Called Layer3 Switch.
The MTU is the “Maximum Transmission Unit” used by the TCP protocol. TCP stands for Transmission Control Prototcol. The MTU determines the size of packets used by TCP for each transmission of data. Too large of an MTU size may mean retransmissions if the packet encounters a router along its route that can’t handle that large a packet. Too small of an MTU size means relatively more overhead and more acknowledgements that have to be sent and handled. The MTU is rated in “octets” or groups of 8 bits. The so-called “official” internet standard MTU is 576, but the standard rating for ethernet is an MTU of 1500.
MAC is a machines Physical address, The internet is addressed based on a logical addressing approach. Say, when the packet reaches say the bridge connection a LAN, the question is..how does it identify, which computer it needs to send the packet to. For this it uses the concept of ARP, Address Resolution Protocol, which it uses over time to build up a table mapping from the Logical addresses to the Physical addresses. Each computer is identified using its MAC/Physical address ( u can use the ipconfig -all option to get ur MAC address).
TCP is a connection oriented protocol, which means that everytime a packet is sent say from host A to B, we will get an acknowledgement. Whereas UDP on the other hand, is a connection less protocol. Where will it be used : TCP -> Say you have a file transfer and you need to ensure that the file reaches intact, and time is not a factor, in such a case we can use TCP. UDP-> Media Streaming, question is say you are watching a movie…would you prefer that your movie comes..perfectly….but u need to wait a long time before you see the next frame ?..or would you prefer the movie to keep streaming…Yes…The second option is definely better….This is when we need UDP